Traditional folk culture´s expressions in everyday life in a village or a small town are currently considerably reduced as a consequence of essential changes that happened in the last one hundred years, especially in the last decades. Probably most relics of the original societal life have survived in the field of folk customs, traditions, ceremonies and other festivities, which are monitored in a separate section (see 3, Customary Tradition).
However, it is possible to research on the contemporary expressions of societal life mainly in connection with clubs and societal organizations, which developed in modern period and underwent considerable changes before they have reached their present-day form.
4.1 Clubs and societal organizations
Clubs and societal organizations as well as other types of associations are integrated in the section of intangible culture. They are primarily associated with the life of city inhabitants, from where they spread to the rural environment. It is a realm that is sometimes quite intimate as it involves moments of human life which tend to be hushed up. This mostly concerns frequent and regular visits to pubs and inns, which are often evaluated in a contradictory way.
4.1.1 Ways of associating
Different types of clubs and associations are subjects which result from convergence of people. For this reason, they are researched into as ways and forms of association of urban and rural residents, which can be formal (official), permitted by corresponding institutions, or informal (not official), which developed and exist spontaneously. Specific sub-cultures formed by large groups of people interested in a certain activity, which is a significant part of their everyday life and which influence their life style, are among special ways of associating.
188.8.131.52 formal (official) groups – associations of people founded to accomplish a goal, which is fixed in writing and in advance and which is usually included in the Articles approved by corresponding state authorities.
184.108.40.206.1 clubs and associations– official institutions with an activity that is formally fixed and approved by corresponding state institutions; the originally spontaneous activity of such groups was given a firm organizational base to serve as an efficient mean to push through common goals.
220.127.116.11.2 local organizations (trade unions) of supra-local institution – associations working in particular locations according to the club principles; however, pushing through ideas of a much bigger institution comprising a large territory and featuring central bodies (usually a central committee).
18.104.22.168.3 basic-level organizations of political parties – groups of activists of local organizations of diverse political subjects, which carry out political and promotional, as well as social and cultural activities in their location.
22.214.171.124 informal groups – spontaneously formed associations of people who are close to each other in terms of their age, hobbies, ways of thinking etc.; these associations are founded with the aim to spend leisure time together in a corresponding setting and society;
126.96.36.199.1 table societies – informal associations formed by regular guests in a pub, inn or restaurant, or a partial group inside a formal institution, e.g. a club or a societal organization
188.8.131.52.2 youth clubs– spontaneously formed associations of young people and older children (with low number of members), which deal with hobby activities aimed at leisure
184.108.40.206 sub-cultures – groups of people, especially young people, within a wider society, who are creators and bearers of specific peculiar standards, values, behaviour patterns, and lifestyle (e.g. tramps, skinheads, punkers, sprayers etc.), and whose attributes are aimed at differentiating them from the dominating culture.
4.1.2 Places of associating – occasions to associate
Clubs and associations developing their activity in more or less stable places, in selected rooms, which are suitable for the members to gather and perform their activities- These centres allows the own members to have a good time, bus some types are also suitable for activities aimed at the public, for which the clubs and associations organize them.
220.127.116.11 club centres – special houses, buildings, seats of local important clubs
18.104.22.168 clubrooms – rooms for activities of a club or an association, especially for non-public activities and regular gathering of their members,
22.214.171.124 pubs, inns with separate rooms – pubs and inns at a good level, with rooms for more or less closed meetings of local informal groups, in particular table societies, and for club activities, mainly gathering of club members at regular meetings
126.96.36.199 pubs with gaming rooms and gaming machines – pubs and inns equipped with machines and aids to play various types of societal games, which make it possible to form more stable collectives of frequent players and official clubs with the corresponding game as a formally fixed activity.
188.8.131.52 pubs and inns with suitable rooms to develop societal life (dance halls) – pubs and inns with large halls, in which the clubs organize their dance parties, balls, amateur theatre performances, concerts, and gymnastic or other exercises for their members and the broad public.
4.1.3 Way of spending leisure time together
Clubs and associations serve for their members especially out of their worktime, when they search for people with similar opinions and thinking to experience their leisure time together with them. In everyday life as well as on holidays, the members of official and non-official groups foster their interests and hobbies, and perform activities aimed at the benefit of wider environment, in which they are active, including organizing of various festivals, festivities etc.
184.108.40.206 development of specific interests and hobbies – activities aimed at securing of various necessary interests of an individual, as well as at fostering of hobbies, games and entertainments, and at satisfying of member´s social, professional, economic, cultural and societal needs and interests.
220.127.116.11 development of social activities – radiation of club´s activity to the environment, in which it existed and from which most members of the club came; its influence of the broad public by organizing of various types of amusement and socially beneficial events.
18.104.22.168 festivities – participation of clubs and associations (or their representatives) in public celebrations and festivities, and organization, preparation and implementation of events like that.
4.1.4 Integration of traditional folk culture´s elements
The integration of various elements of traditional folk culture is an important part (especially in terms of ethology) of clubs and associations´ activities. These elements are part of their symbolism, internal activities and presentation towards the setting, in which they operate; they also have a binding integrating importance. Below please find field in which the elements of traditional folk culture are integrated:
22.214.171.124 symbolism of clubs, associations and political parties – the use of traditional folk culture´s elements as symbols and signs of clubs and associations.
126.96.36.199 (entertaining) activity of clubs – the use of traditional folk culture´s elements in entertainment activities intended for their members as well as the public.
188.8.131.52 promotion of club performances and campaigns – involvement of traditional folk culture´s elements in performances to represent the clubs, their activity and goals.
4.1.5 Important persons, activists, initiators
Members of clubs and association, important persons of local and even supra-local stature. It was these people who often were founder of a club or an association and who (at least for a certain time) led them as acknowledge authorities or members of their committees, bearers of functions. They included famous celebrities respected by national community.
184.108.40.206 authorities leading informal groups – important persons around whom their friends grouped, who respected the charism of the authority who influenced or even led them.
220.127.116.11 important and famous persons, celebrities as members of clubs and associations – persons who helped profile activities of their clubs and societies; their own output reflected activities of those associations.
18.104.22.168 club activists, organizers, “functionaries”, “clubmen, clubwomen” – important persons in local setting, who took a significant part in foundation of informal associations and official clubs; they led them and the influenced in an essential way the public and societal life of the environment they lived in.
4.2 Relations in villages and small towns
Besides the afore-mentioned theme of clubs and associations, it is necessary to pay attention to other closed phenomena. The ancient institution of chasa » young people of the village, village youth seems to be the most important one. Chasa evolved in the Middle Ages in our regions, and until the 19th century it spread throughout the entire territory. Currently, it is substantiated in areas and regions with the most viable folk culture.
Investigating the present-day chasa, I seems to be most important to research this institution as a way of village youth´s gathering and as a group of those who initiate, organize and bear the peculiar expressions of folk entertainment.
4.2.1 chasa as a way of village youth´s gathering
– tasks of chasa as an informal association of young people in the countryside
4.2.2 chasa as a group of those who initiate, organize and bear the peculiar expressions of folk entertainment
– chasa as a group developing own activities, which originate in its traditional mission.
4.3 Relations in the family
Relations among inhabitants, especially those living in villages, mingled with more intimate relations within particular families from times immemorial. Because villages were quite closed off for foreign arrivals, local families often interconnected with each other, which gave rise to many blood relations. However, the period of the last one hundred year saw an increase in social differentiation and mobility of rural residents, which proved to be destructive in this respect. Looking at past expressions of tight relationship among particular families it is only some of them that are important these days. One of them is god-parenthood.
a voluntarily protection of a child, his/her patronage, accepted by a representative of the community